Immunization against nematodes (Helminth): A review
M Verma, S Gaherwal, MM Prakash
Helminth word is originated from the Greek which means “worms”. Clinical features of helminth infections are known from the ancient writings of Hippocrates, Egyptian medical papyri, and the bible. Helminthsare multicellular parasitic organism having medical and economic value. Many human beings and domesticated animals were found infected worldwide by parasite of helminth. Helminthswere key factor of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. The World Health Organisation report indicates that more than 2.5 billion human are found infected with parasitic. Intestinal helminths  infections are more in children. An estimate indicate that by year 2025, approximate 57% of human population (countries developing) may be by helminth infection. Helminth borne diseases are primary factor in lowering the productivity of useful animals. This was mainly due to mortality and reduced weight gains. This problem is severe in tropical countries where rains are good. Helminthsinfected rats and mice are responsible for transmitting the helminth disease to men and vertebrates. In helminthsnematodes are also known as roundworms. This group is known to have second largest number of species in phylum among animal kingdom, encomprising up to 500,000 identified species. Nematode infections are common feature among vertebrate life. Infected hosts tried to respond to infections caused by nematode with 5 their immune response. While nematodes respond to host with three defence strategies i.e.: (1) Not persuading immune responses which are harmless (2) Compromise with selected parts of the host’s immune response, and (3) Preventing the local effecter cell mechanisms of the host’s response. In case of nematode infections, it was commonly observed that the, survival and fecundity of infectious agents are lowered in hosts due to an immune response Gastrointestinal nematodes are causing serious production losses. Parasites are highly successful organisms due to it’s highly adaptability quality developed.