Vol. 3, Issue 5 (2018)
Ecto-and Endo-parasites of domestic birds in Owan west, east and Akoko-Edo in Edo state of Nigeria
Author(s): Edosomwan E Uwa, Igetei E Joseph
Abstract: Parasites are major cause of low productivity in poultry resulting in poor health, stunted growth, low productivity and yield of birds especially those reared in free-range. Twenty-three (23) live domestic birds comprising of 13 chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), 6 ducks (Anas sparsa), and 4 pigeons (Columba livia) distributed across 3 Local Government Council Areas (LGAs) in Owan West, East and Akoko-Edo of Edo State, Nigeria, was screened for ecto- and endo-parasites. In addition, two hundred (200) faecal samples from 200 domestic birds distributed across the 3 LGAs were investigated for endoparasites. From the 23 live birds, nine species of ectoparasite (Mallophaga-lice), were recovered, of which Menopon gallinae recorded the highest prevalence (23.33%), while Coclutogaster heterographus recorded the least (3.33%). 162 of the 223 birds (23 live birds + 200 faecal samples) investigated were positive for endoparasites recording an overall prevalence of 72.65%. From these hosts, 25 species of endo-helminths comprising of 9 species of cestode; 13 species of nematode; 3 species of trematode and some protozoan sporocysts were recovered. Raillietina tetragona recorded the highest overall prevalence (20.40%), while Amidostomum anseris recorded the least with a prevalence of 0.20%. All 13 live chickens (100%) and 2 pigeons (50%) were observed to be infected with endoparasites. They included: 8 species of cestode; 3 species of nematode and a trematode species. R. tetragona recorded the highest overall prevalence (24.69%) while A. anseris recorded the least with a prevalence of 0.94%. A total of 147 (73.50%) of the 200 faecal samples investigated recorded various species of endoparasites. They included: 12 species of nematode (63.39%); 6 species of cestode (29.46%); 2 species of trematode (6.25%) and some unsporulated protozoan sporocysts (0.89%). Heterakis gallinarum recorded the highest prevalence (21.88%) while A. anseris recorded the least (0.45%). These observations showed that the recorded ecto-and endo-parasites are major consequences of the bird’s migratory and unhygienic feeding habits which resulted in poor-health, productivity and even death.