Effect of phorate on histopathological changes in the kidney of common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to lethal concentrations
The effect of acute lethal toxicity of phorate (ALTP) on the histopathology of kidney of the fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (C. carpio) was investigated in the present study. Fish were exposed to ALTP (LC50/96 hours - 0.71 ppm/l) for one day and 4 days and the differential acute toxicity tests were carried out under laboratory conditions. On exposure for a period of 1 day to ALTP, contraction in the glomerulus renal tubule, expansion of space inside the Bowman’s capsule and initiation of the degeneration of hematopoietic tissue was noticed in the kidney of the fish. Further on exposure for a period of 4 days to ALTP, there was a further increase in the glomerular shrinkage and dilation in Bowman’s capsule was observed. The other pathological changes that were observed are the appearance of periglomerular space, formation of pycnotic nuclei in the hematopoietic tissue, necrosis in tubular epithelium, destruction in the renal tubules and vacuolation in the cytoplasm. Complete damage in the structural integrity of the kidney was noticed. On exposure to ALTP, though initially it caused a mild damage to the kidney of the fish at day 1, further exposure to ALTP for 4 days, it caused an irreversible damage.