Prevalence of multiple viral diseases associated with honey bees colony collapse and control of disorders
The paper briefly examines major virus diseases of honey bee occurring in wide geographical bee keeping areas. Honey bee viruses cause colony to abscond; kill larvae, pupae and adult populations; and loss of honey bee products such as honey and wax. Black queen cell virus affects queen pupae; bee virus X reduces life span of bees; bee virus Y is associated with Nosema; chronic bee paralysis results infected bees tremble, listless crawlers, often hairless, black with greasy wings become opaque; deformed wing virus deforms wing and shortened life span; Kashmir bee virus is harmful if associated with other pathogens; and Kakugo virus affects brain and increases aggression. An active, integrated management of infection sources and other stressors is essential to minimizing virus titers with best management practices. Routinely inspect colonies for possible disease, have a thorough knowledge of symptoms and identify when colonies are slow to build up or have sporadic brood patterns indicating that brood has been pulled out and removed. For more viral protection, follow judicious treatment practice and hygiene, clean comb, replace contaminated equipment, fallow of natural forage, proper nutrition, eases stress, strong immune system, and maintain healthy bee stock. Comb replacement and requeening are the best practical responses to a virus infection. Other future avenues of virus control include breeding hygienic bee strains that detect brood diseases and remove infected individuals from colonies or breeding of resistance to infestation.