Fungal diseases of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) that induce considerable losses to colonies and protocol for treatment
Honeybee diseases cause considerable expenses to beekeepers for cost of maintaining apiary’s inspection, colonies damaged or destroyed and drugs fed to prevent bee’s infections. Therefore, current article compiled discusses and provides detailed protocol for various fungal diseases control methods to assist beekeepers and scientists entering this area of research. Two ascomycetes fungi of genera Ascosphaera and Aspergillus within Eurotiomycetes are known to cause chalkbrood (larvae turn grey or pale yellow, die and finally black) and stonebrood (larvae become black covered with powdery fungal spores and difficult to crush) diseases in honey bees. Beekeepers should remove infected larva from the colony and if this happens soon enough, beehives may survive. Selection of bees with pronounced hygienic behavior holds the most promise for control of these diseases. Appropriate management of colonies for diseases prevention must avoid accumulation of spores inside hive, periodically renew brood combs and eliminate combs severely contaminated with mummies. Best ways to prevent bee diseases is to apply Terramycin or Sulfazole and other available therapeutic medicines to bee’s food during spring and fall seasons. These treatments can help to save life of huge amount of bees annually.